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Personalized Medicine Regulation Needs More Than Band-Aids


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significant clarification. Meanwhile, preliminary reaction from the insurance industry has been strongly negative, suggesting that the likelihood of Assemblyman Pretlow’s proposal passing is slim, at least in its current form. But because of what it reveals about the state of personalized medicine regulation in this country, and what that implies about the future of personalized medicine globally, it is a bill that is noteworthy by virtue of its mere proposal.

A Local Solution; A National Problem. In 2008, the now-defunct Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society (SACGHS) published a comprehensive review of the “U.S. System of Oversight of Genetic Testing” (pdf). The 276-page report, which remains the most comprehensive analysis of its kind to-date, identified “significant gaps in the U.S. system of oversight of genetic testing that can lead to harms,” including incomplete, inconsistent and overlapping regulations at the state and federal level.

Nearly three years later, little has changed. As we wrote earlier this month, even as the number of genetic tests and other personalized medicine technologies and treatments proliferates, and despite significant talk about overhauling numerous aspects of this regulatory framework—from the NIH’s proposed Genetic Testing Registry to the FDA’s proposed oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests, among numerous other proposals yet to be implemented – the regulation of genetic tests, and of personalized medicine more broadly, continues to remain a messy, patchwork affair.

While regulators and regulated companies struggle to make sense of the current landscape, genetic testing has garnered increasingly high-profile media and political attention in several areas, including the viability of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing and the patentability of the DNA sequences and methods underlying certain genetic tests. As these issues remain unresolved—the Myriad litigation, for example, is now nearly two years old, and a resolution unlikely to arrive soon—the pressure on lawmakers to act continues to grow.

For example, one the key allegations raised by the Myriad plaintiffs in their initial complaint (pdf) was that Myriad Genetics’ patents on two key breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) mean that “many women at risk [of breast cancer] cannot even be tested because they are uninsured and/or cannot afford the test offered by Myriad.” It is hardly a stretch to view Assemblyman Pretlow’s proposal as a direct, legislative response to perhaps the most politically salient issue posed by the Myriad litigation.

A National Problem; A Global Shift? Taken purely from the perspective of women at risk of hereditary breast cancer who happen to live in New York state, Assemblyman Pretlow’s proposal to require insurance coverage of applicable genetic tests is a positive development. But viewed through a broader lens, the Pretlow proposal is symptomatic of a troubling and ongoing trend: the use of legislative band-aids (e.g. insurance coverage mandates) in an attempt to mitigate the effects of deeper and more serious problems in our personalized medicine regulatory framework.

While significant for a subset of individuals, a bill which would create separate insurance coverage criteria for a subset of genetic tests and follow-on services in a single state would further complicate the existing personalized medicine landscape for national insurers, healthcare providers, genetic test developers and patient advocacy groups. Far from addressing the problems identified by SACGHS three years ago, it would make them worse.

Continued legal and regulatory development in this direction could be tragic … Next Page »

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