(Page 2 of 2)
about how to “humanize” antibodies to make it so the body’s immune defenses don’t reject these drugs as foreign invaders. This was a big problem with the early generations of antibodies that were made with mouse proteins. Improvements have been made with modern antibodies like Genentech’s trastuzumab (Herceptin) and bevacizumab (Avastin), so plenty of scientists questioned whether Foote was wasting his time trying to solve a problem that was already conquered. The work struggled to win much financial support under the peer review grant system. His response was that the current crop of antibodies still cause immune-reactions in at least one out of 100 patients, so there’s still room for improvement.
This work eventually yielded some intellectual property, which eventually spun into a Mountain View, CA-based company called Absalus. That company was acquired by Australia-based EvoGenix in April 2005, which gave Foote an investment return that provided enough financial security to start Arrowsmith in 2007. (In what surely has to go down as one of the more creative financing tools, Foote is paying the company bills by doing expert witness work a couple days a month on antibody drug patent disputes, he says.)
Arrowsmith’s lead project is to develop an antibody that will bind with topotecan, a common chemotherapy drug, to keep that in a steady, low dose in the brain, killing cancer cells. If the antibody is injected directly into the brain, it will be trapped there and prevented from circulating through the body, because it’s a large molecule that can’t cross the blood-brain barrier, Foote says.
So far, Arrowsmith hasn’t collected any investment from venture capitalists, who want to see more data showing that this technique for confining chemotherapy in the brain works in animals.
Even though he’s a lone scientific rebel of sorts, Foote says he can’t do everything himself. He has been joined in the company by Cynthia Figge, a former vice president at McCaw Cellular, and a past president of Sustainable Seattle. Figge handles the business side of things, while Foote works in a Fremont lab to develop antibodies with the right properties. He figures he’ll have a good drug candidate to take into animal trials within a year, so he can generate the kind of data that investors or a biotech company partner will want to see.
No other company is using antibodies in the quite same way, to confine chemotherapy to the brain, Foote says. But there are lots of competitors working on improved drug delivery, or various technologies to help cancer drugs last longer in the body, or reduce side effects. If Arrowsmith is successful, it could change the way a lot of scientists think about how antibodies can be used to treat disease.