The Apple Paradox: How a Company That’s So Closed Can Foster So Much Open Innovation

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start designing apps that work well on both platforms? Instead, if the usual pattern applies, the iSlate will emerge this week as if from the head of Zeus, and only then will Apple release a software development kit, sending programmers scrambling off to see what they can come up with in the scant months before the tablet’s ship date.

On the other hand, it’s hard to argue with success. The iPhone was closed when it launched—leading Jonathan Zittrain, co-founder of Harvard Law School’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society, to decry it as one of the products threatening the “generative quality” of the Internet—but that changed, and now we have a world with 120,000 iPhone apps. It’s conceivable, though it’s not very palatable to the “open culture” crowd, that a closed creative process, driven by a guiding genius like Jobs, is the only way to build products as coherent and compelling as the iPhone. I’m sure this would be Jobs’ own argument. After all, without the solid foundation provided by the phone and its core features—the multitouch interface, the camera, the accelerometer, the GPS chip—most iPhone apps would be nothing special.

Certainly, the opposite extreme of completely open development has yet to prove itself in the mobile computing world. Google’s Android mobile operating system is built on a Linux kernel—and if you ask me, that’s why the market penetration of Android phones is somewhere around 2 percent, while Blackberry devices account for 40 percent of the market, the iPhone for 30 percent, and Palm devices for 7 percent, according to September 2009 data from ChangeWave Research.  [Correction: A previous version of this paragraph stated that Android phones claim “less than 30 percent of the smartphone market, compared to the iPhone’s 55 percent.” In fact, the 30 percent and 55 percent figures refer to the percentage of ad requests over the mobile Web by brand of phone, as measured by mobile advertising provider AdMob in November 2009. I regret the confusion.]

Richard Stallman, creator of the GNU Project and founder of the Free Software Foundation, says his current computer is a Lemote YeeLoong8089 netbook. The device is billed by its Chinese manufacturer as “the world’s first laptop which contains completely free software,” from the BIOS to the Linux operating system to the open-source drivers and applications. But for all its free-ness, the device has an aura that might best be summarized as rinky dink. As Antonio Rodriguez, chief technology officer of the consumer printing group at Hewlett-Packard, commented on Twitter this weekend, the image of a programmer of Stallman’s fame bent over the 10-inch-wide YeeLoong “is like Leonardo with crayons.”

So I am left feeling queasy. Apple products are both beautiful and functional, a rare combination. I love my Mac and my iPhone, and in a few months you’ll probably find me in the line to buy an iSlate. But with every Apple purchase, there’s a part of me that rebels at handing my money over to a company that’s so fanatically controlling. I can’t help wondering what Apple’s customers and developers would do if another company came along with a solid, elegant, open computing platform and a less suspicious, more cooperative disposition toward its community. (Google, are you listening?) The next few months, as we watch how Apple manages the iSlate’s rollout, will be telling. I’m hopeful, but wary.

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Wade Roush is the producer and host of the podcast Soonish and a contributing editor at Xconomy. Follow @soonishpodcast

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  • Jerry

    @Dennis Forbes: You really don’t get it. Apple isn’t innovative because they do things no one else has done before — they’re innovative because they take product concepts that other companies have executed poorly and turn them into products that real human beings want to buy and use.

    Does anyone like Windows Mobile? In all the years that Windows Mobile has been out, have Windows Mobile phones ever sold as well as the iPhone?

    Yes, Microsoft has been pimping tablet computers for years … to what effect? Who do you know who has a Tablet PC? Do you want one? Whereas the expectation from Apple, based on their track record, is that Apple simply would not produce a tablet unless they had a compelling idea of how and why ordinary people would use it.

    Apple-bashers deride Apple for putting as much thought into design, interface ergonomics, and marketing as into engineering — which is like complaining about a general who puts just as much thought into logistics and supply as into combat tactics. You can’t have a successful company without considering every factor that affects sales, and Apple is successful because it sweats about factors of consumer psychology that other companies are only dimly aware exist.

  • “Apple-bashers deride Apple for putting as much thought into ”

    Strawman. I even said before that Apple executes well. Apple knows how to polish a product and make it something that people lust after. Only a fool would deny that.

    Executing very well (extremely well, even) is not the same thing as being innovative or original. Yet Apple-boasters always seem to fool themselves into thinking that Apple (which is the company that had to abandon their whole platform as a failure and “execute well” on top of PC hardware and FreeBSD) is some grand innovator.

  • As an artist who has been a mac enthusiast since the first one, I see Jobs’ “vision” for his product is much like an artist’s creation. He has an artist’s sense of protecting his work, not wanting to be copied. And unlike some artists (DaVinci, Warhol, etc.) he can’t just let some collaborator paint and then sign it. Jobs wants to do the underpainting, mix the colors and lay in as many brushstrokes as possible in his creations. What some see as odd, I see as perfectly sensible. Sharing leads to stealing. As for the way other creative types embrace his vision, I still don’t see why you can’t expand your viewpoint to see how his vision, his obsessive creative pursuit of excellence, fits perfectly with other art tools. You want the best brushes, or other tools, why not want the most visionary and obsessively perfected computing tool, as well?

  • Jerry

    @Dennis Forbes: Defining innovation depends on your viewpoint. From the view of marketers, consumers, the press, and the general public, “execution” (building a sellable product that actually changes what people buy and what they use)” IS innovation, and building a prototype or an uninspiring product that no one wants to buy is NOT innovation.

    Apple has a huge reputation with non-engineering, non-technical people precisely because Apple works and speaks more directly to their concerns.

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  • Wade Roush

    Here’s another example, post-iPad announcement, of someone who apparently has the same queasy, ambivalent feelings I do about Apple’s need for control:

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  • The writer finds it incomprehensible, perhaps even tragic, that my
    main computer is a netbook that gives me the freedom I have striven
    for since September 1983. His conclusion reflects a lacuna in the
    values that the whole article is based on. It values innovation and
    creativity, but not freedom.

    The article describes Apple as “closed”, but praises the “open
    innovation” in the apps that Apple chooses to permit users to install.
    I doubt the term “open” fits the censorship of the Apple app store.
    But I think “open” vs “closed” is a secondary issue anyway. I want my
    technology to respect my freedom; I want to use free software,
    software that the users control. Apple is the pioneer in putting
    chains on its users, and the only ethical use I know of for an iBad is
    reverse engineering.

    If the idea that freedom is at stake in our choice of software piques
    your curiosity, see
    and for more information.

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